One century ago this week, a disaster struck Jewry

On a Sabbath day, Feb 15 1919, fear came to a Jewish village of a Ukrainian city of Proskurov. The Proskurov pogrom would come to weigh a tragedy that befell a Jews of Ukraine during a Ukrainian-Soviet war. (1918-1920)

Following a withdrawal of German infantry after World War One from Ukraine, Communist comrade infantry sought control as did Ukrainian nationalists. Also concerned were a White Russians who wanted to revive Czarist rule.

Proskurov had no chronological record of ever experiencing a pogrom notwithstanding a plcae in a apprehension tormented segment that had suffered many aroused attacks for hundreds of years. No pogrom given that of Kishinev in 1904 had done such an impact on Jewry. The Pruskoruv pogrom caused good fear and panic that widespread via towns in Ukraine in early 1919 and alarmed universe Jewry to a apocalyptic puncture Ukrainian Jewry was facing.

In early 1919, Ukrainian nationalists unleashed their ire opposite a Jews. Massacres were perpetrated in Yekaterinoslav, Zhitomir and other cities in a Ukraine. Proskurov Jewry, that numbered about 25,000, was shortly in good danger.

The internal Haidamak (Cossack) personality Ataman Semosenko, of a third regiment, who had insincere authority only days earlier, targeted a Jews. At a cooking celebrating his new command, he delivered a debate in that he indicted a Jews of being a rivalry of Ukraine and a Cossacks. Semosenko called for a rejecting of a Jews in sequence to “save a Ukraine.”

He also evoked a common canard that a Jews were comrade revolutionaries and so adversaries of Ukrainian independence. The immeasurable infancy of Jews however, were not Bolsheviks and there were also some Jews who were supporters of Ukrainian independence. Furthermore, other racial groups also had members of a comrade party. The immeasurable infancy of a Jews of Proskurov, as Shtetl Jews during a time, were not concerned in domestic affairs.

Three days before a massacre, haidamaks paraded via a city on horses with rifles in hand. Their intentions were to dominate a Jews.

The final day before a massacre, was Friday, a fourteenth day of a month of Adar Rishon.  (The initial month of Adar in a jump year) The Jews of Proskurov were scheming for a Sabbath.

That Shabbat was a balmy day in Proskurov. The Jews celebrated a Sabbath partaking in a Sabbath dish though there was a foresight clarity of fear.

The pogrom shortly began. Hordes of Cossacks divided into smaller groups and began attacks opposite Jews in a streets and in their homes. The force had begun.

Knives, swords and bayonets were many mostly used though there were also reports of palm grenades being used as good as Jews rushed to cellars and attics to escape.

There are accounts of a slaughter.

According to one survivor, “They (Cossacks) were divided into groups of 5 to fifteen group and swarmed into a streets that were inhabited by Jews. Entering a homes, they drew their swords and began to cut down a inhabitants but courtesy to sex or age. ….Jews were dragged out of cellars and lofts and murdered. ”

Entire families were slain.

The cries and screams of those who were tortured whose physique tools were lame rose to a heavens. Many children became cripples from severed limbs.
One survivor, Haia Greenberg, a helper after testified to a horrors, “The immature girls repeatedly stabbed; a dual month aged baby with hand lacerations. The five- year aged who had been pieced by spears. The aged male who had been thrown out of a window by his beard. The 13 year aged who became deaf since of his wounds. His brother, who perceived eleven wounds to his stomach and left for passed subsequent to his slain mother, a inept son of a Rabbi who was murdered in his bed; The dual immature children who were expel alive into a fire. “

Greenberg added, “I will never forget a tinged sleet sleds filled with a hacked bodies going to a common array in a cemetery.”

Some of a victims were forced to puncture their possess graves. The cries and screams of those who were tortured whose physique tools were lame rose to a heavens. Many children became cripples from severed limbs.

Some saved Jews during good risk. Dr. S.N Polozov helped many bleeding Jewish children he found in a street. He hid some-more than twenty Jews in his possess home.

There are reports of a few Priests who were murdered as they attempted to stop a pogrom.

The electrocute was carried out from dual to 5 in a afternoon.   

While estimates place a series of deaths during 1600, there are also estimates that place a misadventure list as higher. These total do not embody those who postulated serious damage and were crippled for life.

The Jewish sanatorium and temporary medical stations were full of a wounded. Victims were brought to a Jewish tomb by peasants. Most were buried in mass graves.

The following day, a horrors continued. Haidamaks pounded a circuitously city of Felstin, perpetrating another electrocute where an estimated 6 hundred Jews were murdered.

One century later, a electrocute on that Shabbat in Proskurov, that had turn a pitch of that comfortless era, should be remembered. May a memories of a many martyrs of that epoch be for a blessing.

Larry Domnitch is an teacher and author who lives in Efrat.

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